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interdependence in commerce and finance, because of common 
intellectual interests, democratic ideals and the existence of 
international organizations, unions, bureaus and other institu- 
tions which are doing their work irrespective of national 
boundaries, and which tend to make international war hateful, 
unprofitable and (unless provoked by armaments) unlikely to 
occur ; in view, also, of the gigantic cost of maintaining an 
armed peace that has brought Europe to the verge of bank- 
ruptcy, is hindering the material and social development of 
America and even threatens to overwhelm in blood the civili- 
zation which has been so long maturing ; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That we request the President and Congress of 
the United States, in dealing with other nations, to depend as 
little as possible upon the show and use of force, and as much 
as possible upon reason, goodwill and justice : and that we 
especially ask that the people's money shall not be wasted in 
building and maintaining fortifications on the Panama Canal 
until our method of neutralization has first been tried and 
failed, and that addition shall not be made to the present 
strength of our navy until inclusive arbitration treaties have 
been offered to all the great nations and have been refused 

by them." 

1 « ♦ » i 

Charles Sumner and the Peace Cause. 

At the recent celebration in Boston, on January 6, of 
the centennial of the birth of Charles Sumner, at which 
the various aspects of Sumner's great work were com- 
memorated by various speakers, Edwin D. Mead, at the 
afternoon meeting in Park Street Church, treated Sum- 
ner's lifelong service for the cause of international peace. 

Mr. Mead expressed his profound gratitude that Park 
Street Church, with its noble spire pointing to heaven, 
still stands by Boston Common. There, he said, may it 
ever stand ; and as the years go on may it become the 
place of many meetings as influential in the cause of 
righteousness as the illustrious meetings which have been 
held within its walls in the past ! Hardly had the church 
been reared when it received a new consecration by having 
sung within it for the first time the beautiful hymn, " My 
Country 'tis of Thee," which has become the dearest of 
all our national hymns to the popular heart. That hvmn 
sang of our country as the " sweet land of liberty " at a 
time when the country was half free and half slave ; but 
it truly expressed the Republic's ideal, and truly prophe- 
sied the thing which should be. 

Here in 1829, on the Fourth of July, Garrison made 
his first speech in Boston in his war against slavery ; and 
here twenty years later, in 1849, Charles Sumner made 
his greatest speech in his lifelong war against war. There 
stand in Boston statues of Sumner, Garrison, Andrew, 
Horace Mann, Channing and Theodore Parker. Every 
one of these great warriors against slavery was a warrior 
against war. When the International Peace Congress 
was held in Boston in 1904, the foreign delegates went to 
Mt. Auburn and laid wreaths upon the graves of Sumner, 
Channing, Noah Worcester, Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes 
and Phillips Brooks, the seven great apostles of peace 
whose bodies rest there. They might have gone to Con- 
cord and laid a wreath upon the grave of Emerson ; and 
they might have gone to Amesbury and laid a wreath 
upon the grave of Whittier. All of these men were active 
workers in the peace cause, which has become the com- 
manding cause of our own time, as most of them were 
active in the an ti- slavery cause, which was the specially 
commanding cause of their generation. Mr. Carnegie 
has rightly said that, as the great duty of Lincoln's gen- 
eration was to put a stop to man-selling, so the great duty 
of our generation is to put a stop to man-killing. These 

two great causes of human rights go together ; and as we 
commemorate to-day the greatest champion of anti-slavery 
in the Senate, we remember with gratitude and honor that 
he was also the greatest champion in his day of the cause 
of peace and the better organization of the world. The 
one cause, like the other, occupied his earnest thought and 
devotion during his whole manhood. It was indeed in 
the interest of the peace cause, and not in that of anti- 
slavery, that he began his public career, with his famous 
Fourth of July oration at Tremont Temple, in 1845, upon 
" The True Grandeur of Nations." The true grandeur 
of nations, he said powerfully to Boston and the country 
on that occasion, lies not in its roll of " famous victories," 
with their terrible harvest of slaughtered men, but in 
national service for the brotherhood of nations and the 
welfare of humanity. 

In 1849, here in Park Street Church, he delivered his 
second great address upon the cause, the address entitled 
" The War System of the Commonwealth of Nations," 
an address yet more thorough and powerful than the first. 
His service for the cause continued untiringly. In 1870 
came the searching address, delivered in many places in 
the country, upon " The Duel between France and Ger- 
many," in which he showed that wars are simply the 
duels of nations, and destined, like the duels between 
men, to give place to the judicial settlement of quarrels 
in the courts, as soon as nations become truly civilized. 
It is not too much to say that Charles Sumner's great 
addresses upon war and peace remain the most powerful 
impeachment of the war system in brief which even to- 
day is to be found in the libraries. When he died he 
bequeathed $1,000 to Harvard University for an annual 
prize for the best essay by a student of the University 
upon the legal methods of superseding war. He em- 
phasized in this the great importance of the education of 
our people to ideas of international peace and justice. 
Let us, on this great anniversary, devote ourselves anew 
to the information and training of our people in the noble 
principles for which Sumner stood his whole life long. 

One Peril of the New Peace Movement. 


When a ship which has traversed an uncharted ocean 
is finishing her voyage and entering some unknown port, 
it behooves her captain, pilot and crew to be especially 
watchful lest at any moment she strike her prow upon 
some hidden reef. So it is with the peace movement of 
our time. Its advocates have seen it sail so swiftly within 
the past dozen years over such notable leagues of prog- 
ress that its haven already looms ahead and the lower 
lights are seen upon the shore. But between its present 
position and its promised haven there lie perils which 
must be avoided if the voyage is not to end in shipwreck 
or be deflected far down the coast or back to sea. Eter- 
nal vigilance must ever be the price of genuine and last- 
ing success. 

The peril of the peace movement which it is the design 
of this brief article to signalize is the strong and growing 
desire to throw overboard the principle of the equality of 
sovereign states. This principle has been regarded as an 
essential plank in the ship which has borne the family of 
nations from the Dejure belli ac pads of Hugo Grotius 
to the second Conference at The Hague.